February 26, 1863
Lincoln signs the National Currency Act
The National Currency Act of 1863 was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on February 25, 1863. This Act created the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) which was responsible for organizing and administering a national banking system and uniform currency.
http://www.occ.gov/about/what-we-do/hisory/OCC history final.pdf