Masks will be required in many of Columbia’s public spaces starting 5 p.m. Friday.

The City Council voted 6-1 late Monday night to adopt the ordinance. Councilman Matt Pitzer was the lone holdout.

The vote happened the night before Missouri added a record 773 cases in a single day Tuesday, 220 cases more than its previous single-day record on June 25.

Notable exceptions to the ordinance include when in a personal vehicle, when exercising outdoors, or when inside if six feet of distance can be accommodated. Also exempted are those with disabilities that make wearing a mask dangerous or impossible.

The fine for violation is $15 for individuals and $100 for businesses. According to City Counselor Nancy Thompson, businesses would not be fined for customers who refuse to wear a mask if that business is taking the necessary precautions. She declined to say that a business would never be fined for a customer infraction.

Enforcement will be complaint-based and handled by the Columbia/Boone County Department of Health and Human Services. Health Director Stephanie Browning said the department’s first priority will be to educate individuals and businesses on the ordinance before enforcing penalties.

"I think we will have a high degree of compliance," she said.

The ordinance will be in effect for 90 days. However, the council can rescind it at any time should local caseloads indicate it is no longer needed. Browning can also make additional exceptions throughout the 90-day period.

The vote occurred shortly before midnight, after lengthy public comments. Out of 29 speakers, 11 spoke against the ordinance and 15 in favor, with others simply offering concerns to the council.

About 40 people gathered outside city hall before the meeting to protest the ordinance.

Those who spoke against the ordinance expressed doubt that face masks are an effective means of decreasing the spread of COVID-19.

"In a lot of cases, I think it’s safety theater," Brian Mayse said.

Browning said there has been growing evidence in recent months that wearing masks prevents the spread of COVID-19 by decreasing the number of respiratory droplets released into the air when a person is talking or breathing.

Others speakers feared that the ordinance is not specific about what sort of mask is appropriate or how it should be worn safely.

As defined by the ordinance, masks are a covering of cloth or fabric, without holes, that covers the mouth and nose. Browning said masks with two layers of fabric or more are ideal.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, cloth masks can be washed in the regular laundry or with a bleach solution. More information can be found on the CDC’s website.

Critics of the ordinance also expressed their fears that such an ordinance would infringe on personal liberty.

Commercial property broker Gina Rende said she worried that a mask ordinance could lead to more strident health regulations in the future.

"This becomes the norm, what’s next?" she said.

Of those who spoke in favor, many emphasized the passage of mask ordinances in other areas of the U.S. and Missouri. Both Kansas City and St. Louis have implemented mask mandates.

"I also think as a community you have to look at the models of other communities that have been successful in treating and getting over this disease," said David Lancaster, a local physician. "They use masks, they distance, they test and they contact trace."

Locally, Columbia Public Schools and the University of Missouri have included mandated masks in their back-to-school plans. Councilwoman Pat Fowler noted that passing a mask ordinance in Columbia would provide consistency.

Among the community members who spoke in favor of the ordinance was Mary Ratliff, president of the Columbia Chapter of the NAACP.

"I think that if the University of Missouri is in Columbia, Missouri; If Boone County hospital is in Columbia, Missouri ... then Columbia, Missouri should be able to say everyone who lives in Columbia wears a mask," Ratliff said.

Matt McCormick, president of the Columbia Chamber of Commerce, also spoke, though neither for nor against the ordinance. He voiced concern regarding when the ordinance was to be implemented and the burden on businesses to supply masks for employees.

"We just ask that the orders be clear, concise and reasonable for our business community and our community as a whole," McCormick said.

In the original ordinance, a mask mandate was to go into effect immediately after a vote of at least 6-1. The council adopted an amendment to delay implementation until 5 p.m. Friday to give businesses time to address internal mask policies.

Other amendments include one that exempts people from wearing a mask in a personal vehicle, regardless of whether the other people in the vehicle are from the same household.

The ordinance will also not be enforced on University of Missouri property or where the university is the sole operator. The same goes for property owned and operated by Boone County. Thompson said this has been standard procedure for health-related ordinances since the pandemic began.

The amendment that would have exempted employers from supplying masks was proposed but not adopted to the final ordinance.

One that would have exempted people from wearing masks in private homes if members from different households were present failed to be adopted. Enforcement of the ordinance is complaint-based, making it difficult to enforce masks in private residences.

However, during the discussion, some worried about losing enforcement power in situations like house parties, particularly as students return to Columbia in the coming months.

Another amendment would have shortened the period the ordinance would be in effect from 90 days to 30. It also failed. Those in favor cited the rapidly changing nature of information regarding COVID-19.

However, others worried shortening the time frame would not allow time to see if the ordinance was effective in decreasing caseloads.

Browning told the council she looks at a 14- to 21-day incubation period to make conclusions on changes in community spread. Mayor Brian Treece worried a 30-day ordinance that goes into effect July 10 would only account for 25 days of changed behavior.

Additionally, Treece said ending the ordinance just as students returned to campus in early August would send the wrong message.

"What we really want to do is have this continuous community ethos in place, so when students return, they know this is a safe place," Treece said. "I think 90 days is just right."

Only Pitzer voted to shorten the time frame.

The ordinance was passed on the day Boone County reached 513 cumulative cases. On Tuesday, the county added 34 more cases to bring its total to 547. One hundred ninety of those cases are active. Most of the cases are clustered in the 20-24 age bracket, which accounts for 139 of the total cases.

New cases of the coronavirus were reported in 75 counties, and the state added 14 deaths Tuesday, bringing the state’s cumulative death toll to 1042. Montineau and Callaway counties each added four cases.

St. Louis County alone added 196 cases of the virus.

Hickory County remains the last county int he state without any cases.

"By and large the majority of our cases are young people who are not socially distancing," Browning said to the council. "They are going to bars and they are visiting others in large groups."

During public comment on the ordinance Lynelle Phillips, an assistant teaching professor of public health at the University of Missouri, said she and her students had been assisting with contact tracing.

"Most of the cases I talked to were in their 20s," she said. "They ranged between really apprehensive to terrified."

Browning said Columbia’s young and healthy population could be a reason hospitalizations have remained relatively level despite the increase in cases.

However, she cautioned, deaths and hospitalizations usually lag behind an initial spike. Not only that, but it’s unlikely that the virus will remain in the 20-24 age demographic for long.

"That bubble is going to burst," she said. "It’s going to spread to more vulnerable populations. We need to turn this bus around. I think this ordinance is a really positive step."

Gabriela Velasquez of the Tribune contributed to this story.